Examining the future of ransomware threats with Vectra’s CTO
Article by Vectra chief technology officer Oliver Tavakoli.
In the last few years, businesses and security leaders have been zeroing in on how to better manage and secure cloud infrastructure amidst a wave of change as enterprise cyber-attacks evolve and increase.
Recent studies reveal that 80% of Australian organisations were hit with ransomware in 2021, up from 45% in 2020. Vectra's own research found that 57% of A/NZ respondents feel it is possible or likely they have been breached whilst being unaware it is happening, 75% have experienced a significant security event that required an incident response effort, and 9% are not fully confident their security tools would protect against sophisticated attacks.
As a CTO, a big part of my focus is the future, creating 'thought experiments' to determine the best ways to protect our critical data and systems. With planes back in the skies, I was delighted to speak at the Australian Cyber Conference earlier this month to discuss and debate some of these so-called 'experiments' with others in the industry.
Ransomware remains an important topic of debate among cybersecurity professionals in Australia and elsewhere in Europe and the US. The other consistent issue is related to supply chain attacks, including traditional on-premises products as well as services delivered via the cloud.
Within Australia, migration to cloud and SaaS, and the inability to source experienced talent who understand the security implications of clouds, are also connected issues. There is tension between businesses wanting to go agile through cloud adoption and security teams trying to gain visibility and implement security in those environments. In a perfect world, that tension is resolved in a balanced manner, but we don't live in a perfect world and often, the business imperative to rapidly roll out new services outstrips the ability of organisations to do so securely.
The problem with cloud
Not so long ago, on-premise networks were wide open to attackers, so this has been our focus. Now, employee traffic is predominantly accessing applications across the internet. This means we need to look at logs in cloud platforms such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Azure and Google Cloud Platform (GCP), cloud identity systems such as Azure AD and Okta and collaboration applications such as Microsoft 365 and Google Workspace.
Highlighting how businesses are being inundated with cyber criminals looking to capitalise on vulnerabilities, the Australian Cyber Security Centre (ACSC) says it received one cybercrime report every eight minutes over the 12 months to June 30, 2021. On top of this, the ACSC states that Australia experienced a 13% jump in cybercrime over the year, with about one incident in four targeting critical infrastructure and services as working from home during the pandemic made more people vulnerable to
A common story is that the pandemic drove businesses to move into multi or hybrid cloud setups, not through a grand strategy but because of a pressing need. As a result, services such as Microsoft 365 or eCommerce platforms were implemented quickly, without consideration for how this impacted infrastructure or security. On top of this, different business units or departments often evolved in different directions, adding layers of complexity.
Now we find ourselves at a point of reckoning where we must understand the reality of the situation and how to fix it.
Ransomware in the cloud
The move to cloud has left gateways for attackers to leverage and gain a point of entry, and they are beginning to take full advantage of this. On-premise, if a cybercriminal wants to encrypt a business's data, they must go through the laborious exercise of connecting to a server, pulling all data across the network, encrypting it and writing it back to the server – and finally deleting the original copy.
To be successful, ransomware operators try and get their hooks into as many places as possible and encrypt as much as possible. In the cloud, ransomware operators can leverage server-side encryption provided in the cloud platforms, allowing them to encrypt data much faster and without heavy lifting.
At Vectra, we look at a cloud like AWS or Azure as having two different attack surfaces. There's the traditional attack surface where attackers go through the network to attack a workload running in the cloud, escape the workload, and then steal data. And there's the management plane or the control plane of a cloud platform which represents a more potent and less well-understood set of controls.
Recognising this, Vectra has solutions to cover both attack surfaces. We work to protect customers being attacked from the network, and we work to protect businesses from being attacked at the control plane of their tenant in a cloud. The inbound initial vector can be incredibly complex and varied, but once it lands and establishes some foothold in the environment, we help the business find and stop the incursion before it does actual damage.
As customers' valuable data move to the cloud, so will ransomware. So we are asking questions such as, what does the combination of cloud and ransomware look like, how quickly will attackers become cloud-capable, and what measures should we take now?
This was the focus of my presentation at the Australian Cyber Conference in Canberra and many of the surrounding conversations. Highlighting the early harbingers that exist, I looked at how we can protect ourselves against ransomware in cloud systems and why this is substantially different to the defensive measures required for on-premise.
By discussing such issues, I hope to encourage CISOs to bridge the worlds of security and business so investments can be prioritised and our infrastructure can be protected.